Автор: [Grower Бот]
So, you’ve finally started growing. Congrats! But, things aren’t going very well because the leaves on your plants aren’t green. Thankfully, you’ve come to the right place: if your leaves aren’t a bright, healthy green it’s likely your crop has a nutrient deficiency. 95 percent of all nutrient deficiency symptoms show first on the leaves, which makes sense, considering the cannabis plant is mainly leaves. Root or stalk problems are rare, we’ve found. But before we get into specific nutrient deficiencies, we must first say a few words on pH levels and watering/feeding practices.
Proper pH is Essential
New growers: if you find yourself scratching your head and reaching for the pipe when asked about pH levels, don’t trip. You’re not alone, and we’ll get you up to speed. The pH of something (usually a liquid) refers to its acidity or alkalinity. The pH scale starts at 0 (very acidic) and goes to 14 (very alkaline). A value of seven is a neutral pH level. Cannabis likes a slightly acidic pH, so shoot for a pH of five or six in your nutrient solution. Marijuana plants cannot absorb nutrients properly if the pH at their roots is too high or too low. So even if the nutrients are present, you’ll still get what looks like nutrient deficient product if you don’t maintain the right pH.
While a purely hydroponic system would be cool to have, most growers stick to peat and perlite to raise their crop. It’s a low-cost, low-tech system, but your plants will love it. It only takes a week or so to find the right feeding and watering amounts in order to get the best yield possible.
Water and Food Make for a Healthy Life
Most peat and perlite pots need to be fed and watered every two or three days. The general rule is to feed in the morning when the grow lamp turns on and water just before the grow lamp turns off. After a few days, if you notice the growing medium is wet an inch down you’ll have to cut back the amount of nutrient solution and water. Don’t confuse dead leaves and stunted growth with nitrogen deficiency– this can also be caused by being overwatered and overfed.
On the other hand, if your growing medium dries out before a full day has passed you’ll have to feed and water more often–but not more all at once. You might also want to ponder using a humidifier in the growing area. Sometimes a dry environment can cause symptoms like nutrient deficiencies, too. Wilting is the first symptom of an underfed, underwatered plant.
Consider the Nutrient Solution
Once you’ve perfected your pH and developed a good feeding and watering plan, think about the nutrient solution you use. During the green leafy stage of life, you might not pick up on a nutrient deficiency since the plant has all of the trace elements–zinc, boron, iron, sulphur, phosphorous and potassium–to grow healthily in its infancy. These trace elements are present in the seed, which lasts for the first two or three weeks of growth.
The concentration of the nutrient solution is as important as the pH of the nutrient solution. Nutrient burn is a reality most growers run into eventually. It is entirely possible to mix your nutrient solution at too high a concentration, referred to as parts per million (PPM), causing the tips of the lower leaves to brown and curl. Read the instructions on the container your nutrient comes in for the specific PPM the nutrient will deliver.
Thrive in the Perfect Temperature
Now let’s think about temperature and its effect on the nutrient solution, and thus, the plant as a whole. Cannabis likes a temperature of 22-24 degrees Celsius (or 68-75 degrees Fahrenheit). You can tell if a plant is heat-stressed if the leaves start folding upwards. The leaves will also have a sickly-looking dark green hue to them too. Just be sure not to confuse this symptom with nitrogen burn, which is an excess of nitrogen. It can look similar.
High temperatures can trigger root rot, too– a serious problem that can kill your plants over time. The easiest way to lower the temperature of an indoor space is to simply turn on a fan to move the air. The air will be cooled in a process known as vaporative cooling.
Observe the following table, which lists most nutrient deficiencies.
Nutrient Symptom(s) ZincSulphur Potassium
The topmost leaves turn yellow. Lower leaves turn yellow. Yellow starts at the base of the leaf and proceeds to the tip. Brown or yellow edges on all leaves regardless of age.
Brown spots all over the leaves. Affected leaves will die and drop off.
Yellow veins, with brown spots.
Older leaves turn an odd pink or red color.
Shows up on older plants. Also shows yellow between the veins of the leaf.
The topmost inner leaves turn bright yellow or even white.
Leaf tips appear yellow. The leaves are dark green.
Brown spots that eat right through the leaf. Stems may be hollow and are brittle.
New foliage growth is very thick. Brown spots on the underside of the leaf.
Most nutrient deficiencies stem from a lack of trace elements. There are hundreds–perhaps thousands–of brands of trace elements, so you’ll have options (and some research to do). It should be noted that a good trace element bottle has a dark glass or plastic. The reason is because light bonds the chemicals in your trace elements. So, be sure to store the bottle in a dark place. Otherwise, the nutrients bond covalently and become unusable to the plant.
As your crop matures you’ll find that a budding plant needs tons of nutrients. The first deficiency you’ll notice is the yellowing and dying off of the older, lower leaves– this is a nitrogen deficiency. This is the most common ailment marijuana throws at you during the budding stage. We usually double the PPM of the nutrient solution during the budding stage. But keep an eye out for nutrient toxins.
With the right growing plan in place and handy articles (such as this one!), you’re sure to harvest a bumper crop of our favorite green growing thing: good ‘ol marijuana.
Автор: [Grower Бот]
Ah, tissue culture. One of the many new trend words in the cannabis-space. What is it, you ask? The definition states that tissue culture is: “the growth in an artificial medium of cells derived from living tissue.” In other words, you can basically regenerate an entire plant just off a single plant cell. Fascinating, right? It’s almost like cloning on steroids–but there are far more benefits.
We got the chance to speak with Justin, a lab technician at DSG Labs; and Chris, a breeder at Compound Genetics. They answered specific questions regarding the tissue culture process, and were nice enough to allow us to share this earthly wisdom with the world.
Consider this your go-to guide when you decide to take cloning to the next level.
НT: Tell us a little about your company
Justin: Darkest Shade of Grey Labs, or DSG Labs for short, was created to provide a service to fellow cannabis growers with the same problems we kept coming across when bringing in new genetics. We had the need to start collecting genetics to exponentially grow our flower demand while keeping up with the ever-changing palate and demand of fellow cannabis users. In doing this, we needed to clean some of our genetics of pathogens to ensure a clean, healthy garden.
How did you get started in tissue culture?
Justin: We started researching how large agriculture did this and found that tissue culture was a possible solution. We bought a few home kits–which were really a waste of time–and decided to invest a large sum of money in building a proper lab. We tried hiring a few different people to help develop proper methods and found that most of their knowledge was severely lacking. We started reading a lot of published papers along with attending events like the Society for In-Vitro Biology, or SIVB for short. Through these events, we found highly educated individuals and really pieced together a great group of people we could barrage with questions.
Thousands of hours were spent doing R and D to develop the right environment and recipes. We were also able to further pursue a science-based genetics program with a few other like-minded individuals with extensive experience in the field who were coming up with the same roadblocks as us. We are now a team of people who are working in unison to create a science-based platform for genetic preservation, pathogen identification, pathogen eradication, micropropagation, genome sequencing, and marker-assisted breeding.
How did Compound Genetics get started?
Chris: Compound Genetics was created by a group of friends with a dream to preserve the essence of the cannabis they love, as well as seek out new expressions. We have been breeding, collecting, and cultivating rare genetics for years in an effort to bring the finest cannabis to the medical and recreational communities. Compound Genetics is best known for its work with Jet Fuel Gelato, the Menthol, and Legend Orange Apricot F2.
What is tissue culture?
Chris: Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues, or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition. Plant tissue culture is widely used to produce clones in a method known as micropropagation. Different techniques in plant tissue culture may offer certain advantages over traditional methods of propagation.
How did you get introduced to tissue culture?
Chris: Compound Genetics was introduced to tissue culture through extensive networking, and on the quest to create the greatest genetics possible utilizing solid scientific methods. Compound Genetics now has working relationships with several well-versed scientists to assist in the evolution of Compounds stable.
What’s the benefits of tissue culture for cannabis seeds?
Chris: The very direct benefit of tissue culture is the ability to clean your genetic library of any and all pathogens. This benefit can easily increase your vigor, yields, and potency. Tissue culture can also provide the ability to store your genetics in a safe, clean environment, long-term without much labor just in case anything in the cultivation environment may become contaminated.
To create seeds from tissue culture would mean that the entire life must be spent in a sterile environment. There is no specific definition and everyone has a different idea of what tissue culture seeds really mean. There are people who will create seeds from mother plants that have been “TC’d” however unless done in a growth chamber the possibility of a virus is still highly likely if the plants were ever contaminated before. Unfortunately, certain virus/viroids can be transferred into the seeds in the breeding process. At Compound Genetics, we are creating a platform in which we can ensure our seeds are free of detrimental virus’ and viroid’s through tissue culture.
How long does it take from plant cell to harvest?
Chris: It takes about a year to truly establish a clean genetic library and beyond that only a few months for the breeding process. However, you only usually need to clean your library once as long as you keep TC versions banked and propagated at all times.
What is required for tissue culture?
Chris: You must be on the OCD spectrum to be talented at it. All kidding aside, you must know how to identify and eradicate all pathogens. You must, then, have very good aseptic SOPs and practice them well. Tools of the craft are generally similar to that which you would see in a traditional hospital’s surgery room. Plant TC is just the same as performing surgery in a hospital. You need a clean room, clean airflow, sterile tools, and to ensure you are also as clean as can be or you can contaminate the cultures.
Is tissue culture the wave of the future?
Chris: It seems that tissue culture might be the future for cannabis plants, depending on what route you have in mind. Some growers now are looking for a way to keep a large library of genetics in a small place. Instead of taking up an entire room for mother plants, you can store all your genetics on a shelf. Some are even looking to pick up dirty clones affected by mold, pests, and/or virus’ to do some research and development. They want to show everyone that you can acquire dirty clones and clean them up so they no longer are affected by the mold, pest, and/or virus through tissue culture. You will then have the same genetics you started with, but a sterile version of that clone. Apparently, you can even run old seeds with a lower germination rate and increase the chance of germination.
Tissue culture has a nice variety of applications in cannabis. So to answer your question, I am sure. There’s no doubt in my mind that these methods will be adopted by many of the legal cannabis facilities around the world in the next few years. Who knows what else tissue culture would be able to offer by then?
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Регистрация 25.10.2020 12:57