Автор: [Grower Бот]
So, you’ve finally started growing. Congrats! But, things aren’t going very well because the leaves on your plants aren’t green. Thankfully, you’ve come to the right place: if your leaves aren’t a bright, healthy green it’s likely your crop has a nutrient deficiency. 95 percent of all nutrient deficiency symptoms show first on the leaves, which makes sense, considering the cannabis plant is mainly leaves. Root or stalk problems are rare, we’ve found. But before we get into specific nutrient deficiencies, we must first say a few words on pH levels and watering/feeding practices.
Proper pH is Essential
New growers: if you find yourself scratching your head and reaching for the pipe when asked about pH levels, don’t trip. You’re not alone, and we’ll get you up to speed. The pH of something (usually a liquid) refers to its acidity or alkalinity. The pH scale starts at 0 (very acidic) and goes to 14 (very alkaline). A value of seven is a neutral pH level. Cannabis likes a slightly acidic pH, so shoot for a pH of five or six in your nutrient solution. Marijuana plants cannot absorb nutrients properly if the pH at their roots is too high or too low. So even if the nutrients are present, you’ll still get what looks like nutrient deficient product if you don’t maintain the right pH.
While a purely hydroponic system would be cool to have, most growers stick to peat and perlite to raise their crop. It’s a low-cost, low-tech system, but your plants will love it. It only takes a week or so to find the right feeding and watering amounts in order to get the best yield possible.
Water and Food Make for a Healthy Life
Most peat and perlite pots need to be fed and watered every two or three days. The general rule is to feed in the morning when the grow lamp turns on and water just before the grow lamp turns off. After a few days, if you notice the growing medium is wet an inch down you’ll have to cut back the amount of nutrient solution and water. Don’t confuse dead leaves and stunted growth with nitrogen deficiency– this can also be caused by being overwatered and overfed.
On the other hand, if your growing medium dries out before a full day has passed you’ll have to feed and water more often–but not more all at once. You might also want to ponder using a humidifier in the growing area. Sometimes a dry environment can cause symptoms like nutrient deficiencies, too. Wilting is the first symptom of an underfed, underwatered plant.
Consider the Nutrient Solution
Once you’ve perfected your pH and developed a good feeding and watering plan, think about the nutrient solution you use. During the green leafy stage of life, you might not pick up on a nutrient deficiency since the plant has all of the trace elements–zinc, boron, iron, sulphur, phosphorous and potassium–to grow healthily in its infancy. These trace elements are present in the seed, which lasts for the first two or three weeks of growth.
The concentration of the nutrient solution is as important as the pH of the nutrient solution. Nutrient burn is a reality most growers run into eventually. It is entirely possible to mix your nutrient solution at too high a concentration, referred to as parts per million (PPM), causing the tips of the lower leaves to brown and curl. Read the instructions on the container your nutrient comes in for the specific PPM the nutrient will deliver.
Thrive in the Perfect Temperature
Now let’s think about temperature and its effect on the nutrient solution, and thus, the plant as a whole. Cannabis likes a temperature of 22-24 degrees Celsius (or 68-75 degrees Fahrenheit). You can tell if a plant is heat-stressed if the leaves start folding upwards. The leaves will also have a sickly-looking dark green hue to them too. Just be sure not to confuse this symptom with nitrogen burn, which is an excess of nitrogen. It can look similar.
High temperatures can trigger root rot, too– a serious problem that can kill your plants over time. The easiest way to lower the temperature of an indoor space is to simply turn on a fan to move the air. The air will be cooled in a process known as vaporative cooling.
Observe the following table, which lists most nutrient deficiencies.
Nutrient Symptom(s) ZincSulphur Potassium
The topmost leaves turn yellow. Lower leaves turn yellow. Yellow starts at the base of the leaf and proceeds to the tip. Brown or yellow edges on all leaves regardless of age.
Brown spots all over the leaves. Affected leaves will die and drop off.
Yellow veins, with brown spots.
Older leaves turn an odd pink or red color.
Shows up on older plants. Also shows yellow between the veins of the leaf.
The topmost inner leaves turn bright yellow or even white.
Leaf tips appear yellow. The leaves are dark green.
Brown spots that eat right through the leaf. Stems may be hollow and are brittle.
New foliage growth is very thick. Brown spots on the underside of the leaf.
Most nutrient deficiencies stem from a lack of trace elements. There are hundreds–perhaps thousands–of brands of trace elements, so you’ll have options (and some research to do). It should be noted that a good trace element bottle has a dark glass or plastic. The reason is because light bonds the chemicals in your trace elements. So, be sure to store the bottle in a dark place. Otherwise, the nutrients bond covalently and become unusable to the plant.
As your crop matures you’ll find that a budding plant needs tons of nutrients. The first deficiency you’ll notice is the yellowing and dying off of the older, lower leaves– this is a nitrogen deficiency. This is the most common ailment marijuana throws at you during the budding stage. We usually double the PPM of the nutrient solution during the budding stage. But keep an eye out for nutrient toxins.
With the right growing plan in place and handy articles (such as this one!), you’re sure to harvest a bumper crop of our favorite green growing thing: good ‘ol marijuana.
Автор: [Grower Бот]
If you’re like most of the fine folks in the cannabis community, you’ve probably never heard of THC-O. But don’t feel bad. You’re not somehow an inferior pothead, and you won’t have your cannabis card (an analog of the man card) revoked.
THC-O doesn’t get a lot of press and it doesn’t lend itself to DIY like THC oil and CBD oil. Plus, to really understand this unique substance, you have to delve into some pretty hairy chemistry.
For that reason alone, THC-O is a non-starter for most people. And that’s a shame because, with the legalization of cannabis sweeping the planet, THC-O is emerging from the shadowy fringes as a viable (and powerful) option for both recreational and medicinal use.
In this article, the experts at Honest Marijuana demystify THC-O to help you understand the cutting edge of cannabis science and how it applies to your particular condition.
Fair warning: we will be dealing with a lot of chemistry concepts (not to mention plenty of multisyllabic words), but we promise we’ll do our best to make it as accessible as possible.
What Is THC-O?
THC-O is the shortened name (the slang term) for THC-O-Acetate, also referred to as THC Acetate and ATHC. That’s a lot of names for one substance. And, yes, it can be confusing.
But the nice thing about cannabis culture is that it leans more toward brevity than accuracy (thank goodness or we’d always have to say or write “tetrahydrocannabinol”). So you’ll probably come across THC-O or ATHC more often.
And while we’re on the subject of names, it’s important that you don’t confuse ATHC with THCA (or THCa). THCA is tetrahydrocannabinolic acid — the parent molecule of THC.
As you can see from the full name, the “A” in THCA stands for acid. THCA occurs naturally in raw cannabis and converts to THC through decarboxylation. In ATHC, the “A” stands for acetate. That’s the first major difference.
The second major difference is that ATHC can only be produced in a laboratory environment. You can’t pick up a few tools at your local hardware and whip a batch of ATHC in your kitchen. The results would be disastrous (that means flaming death, boys and girls).
So when it comes to ATHC vs. THCA, be sure to make note of where the “A” is in the name (and even whether it’s upper or lower case) because the two chemicals are completely different animals.
First and foremost, THC-O is a cannabinoid just like THC, CBD, CBG, and CBN. At their most basic, cannabinoids are chemical compounds that act on the cannabinoid receptors in your brain.
In other words, they’re the “stuff” that gets you high, relieves your pain, and takes the edge off your anxiety.
The thing about THC-O is that it is not a naturally occurring cannabinoid (like THC and CBD). It takes some pretty hefty — and volatile — chemistry to create THC-O in a lab. That processing strips away all the other beneficial chemical compounds (terpenes and flavonoids) and leaves behind a potent THC isolate with no flavor and no aroma.
In its natural state (or unnatural state, to be more precise), THC-O is just a heavy brown liquid more akin to motor oil than anything else. And when all is said and done, THC-O is what’s known in chemistry circles as an “analog.”
An analog is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component. In this case, the original compound is THC. That makes THC-O a THC analog.
Let’s investigate what that means in a bit more detail (with pictures!).
What’s The Difference Between THC And THC-O?
The best way to understand the difference between THC and THC-O is with pictures (they really are worth a thousand words).
Here’s a picture of a regular old THC molecule:
Yeah, we know, it’s just a bunch of letters and numbers. But don’t worry too much about all the Hs and Cs and 3s. Focus instead on the lines and shapes. Trust us, it will make more sense when compared to the picture of THC-O.
The biggest difference between the two pictures (aside from the lack of Hs and Cs and 3s) is the upper right corner.
In the top picture (THC molecule), there’s an OH. In the bottom picture (THC-O molecule), there’s an O and a new set of lines. That new set of lines is the acetate molecule (the “A” in ATHC).
It’s the addition of that new molecule that sets ATHC apart from regular THC and makes it special.
So what exactly does that new molecule do? We’ll answer that question in the next section.
Why Is THC-O So Special?
The addition of the acetate molecule to the base THC molecule does two very important things:
It makes the THC molecule water-soluble. It makes the THC molecule stronger. We know you’re dying to hear about THC-O’s potency, but hold your horses. Let’s talk about water solubility first because that’s the basis of THC-O’s strength.
THC-O Is Water Soluble
Cannabinoids like THC and CBD are lipids (fatty oils) in their natural state. So, as a consumable product, they are fat-soluble (meaning they dissolve in oil).
In your body, the dissolution of fats and oils undergoes a slightly different process than water-soluble substances like vitamins and fiber. In simplest terms, there’s an extra filtering step before the nutrients pass into your bloodstream.
The difference in those processes means that, when it comes to cannabis consumption, less THC makes it into your bloodstream (because of the extra filtering) and, ultimately, to your brain (where all the magic happens).
But water-soluble materials bypass that extra filtering step and pass directly into your bloodstream. That means more of the nutrient is available for use by your body.
So when you consume THC-O, your body skips the extra filtering it would normally perform on regular THC (because THC-O is water-soluble) and passes a higher percentage of the molecules into your bloodstream.
That, in essence, makes THC-O much more potent than regular smoked, dabbed, or ingested THC. How much more potent? We’ll give you the numbers in the next section.
THC-O Is Stronger
Hold on to your butts! Lab tests show that THC-O can be 300 percent stronger than regular THC. Yes, you read that right: 300 percent stronger.
All of that because of a tiny acetate molecule and a bit of water-solubility! It makes you appreciate just how powerful a filtering agent your body can be.
If you’re a thinking cannaseur, you may be wondering why anyone would need something that strong. And you’d be right. So let’s do away with the notion of using THC-O for recreational purposes — regular THC does just fine at getting you high — and focus instead on medicinal uses. That’s where THC-O really shines.
It goes without saying that everyone is different. The biology of one person’s body is different from the biology of another person’s body. So, in some people, THC doesn’t have the desired medical effects (pain relief, anti-anxiety, etc.).
THC-O, though, is, for all intents and purposes, a different version of the drug. Because of that, it can stimulate the cannabinoid receptors in your brain in a way that regular THC can’t.
So where a THC pill or THC oil might not provide the pain relief you’re looking for, a THC-O product might be a viable alternative. That’s why more and more people are talking about THC-O these days — because of its potential medical benefits.
So if you’re considering trying THC-O for the first time, start small (very small would be best) and increase your dosage slowly. It’s difficult to overdose on cannabinoids, but too much can take you way too high and give you a bad trip.
That defeats the purpose of the whole endeavor.
What Are The Effects OF THC-O?
The medicinal effects of THC are pretty well-known. THC-O doesn’t differ in that regard. Where it does diverge is in its recreational effects (its high).
Many describe the effects of THC-O as very spiritual and introspective. Some even liken the trip to LSD and shrooms — something regular THC products can’t claim.
One thing of note is that, like edibles, you’ll have to wait 20 to 30 minutes before you feel the effects of THC-O. This is because your body has to separate (digest) the acetate molecule from the THC molecule before it’s sent to your brain.
Should You Try THC-O For Yourself?
Absolutely! Especially if you’re looking for a specific medical benefit. THC-O may be just the thing for you.
Having said that, it’s essential to note that you should always buy your THC-O from a reputable dealer. Talk to the professionals at your local dispensary. They can help you find just the right product.
And please, please, please don’t try to make THC-O on your own. The process requires special equipment and advanced training to get right. And volatile, flammable, and explosive chemicals are necessary.
It’s not worth your life (or your home or your eyebrows) to do something that a lab can do better and safer.
If you want to use THC-O, always buy, never DIY.
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Регистрация 24.10.2020 16:18